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Coronavirus (COVID-19): What It Is, Affected Countries, Symptoms, Treatment & More [Updated: April 2024]

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Christy Rodriguez
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Christy Rodriguez

Travel & Finance Content Contributor

88 Published Articles

Countries Visited: 36U.S. States Visited: 31

After having “non-rev” privileges with Southwest Airlines, Christy dove into the world of points and miles so she could continue traveling for free. Her other passion is personal finance, and is a cer...
Edited by: Keri Stooksbury
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Keri Stooksbury

Editor-in-Chief

36 Published Articles 3282 Edited Articles

Countries Visited: 47U.S. States Visited: 28

With years of experience in corporate marketing and as the executive director of the American Chamber of Commerce in Qatar, Keri is now editor-in-chief at UP, overseeing daily content operations and r...

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COVID-19 has had a profound impact on both our day-to-day lives and global travel. This new strain of coronavirus has been already been confirmed in hundreds of millions of cases around the world and the World Health Organization has declared this a global pandemic.

For travelers, COVID-19 has resulted in many canceled or altered travel plans and is clearly something we will all need to take into consideration moving forward. Our goal is to let you know how to take preventive measures to limit your risk of being infected, provide information about how specific countries are handling the pandemic, and advise what to do if your travel plans have been affected.

What Is a Coronavirus?

A coronavirus is not a single virus, but actually a family of viruses that were first identified in the 1960s. A coronavirus can include both the common cold virus and as well as more severe diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).

Doctors battling coronavirus COVID 19
Image Credit: United Nations

In December 2019, the World Health Organization (or WHO) identified a new type of coronavirus, or a “novel” virus, officially known as COVID-19. Since this is a new strain that hasn’t been previously seen in humans, it makes it easier to transmit as no one has built up prior immunities. There are many strains of this virus, with Delta and Omicron being the most widespread, but all are still considered COVID-19.

For purposes of this article, we’ll simply refer to this current strain as the coronavirus or virus.

How Is the COVID-19 Coronavirus Transmitted?

According to WHO, “coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people.” It is not known how the current form of the coronavirus was transmitted to humans officially, and many studies are still being conducted to determine the origins of this strain.

Once humans have been infected, the virus is spread the same way other cold-causing viruses do — through close person-to-person contact. It is spread through the fluids of infected people from coughing and sneezing, by touching an infected person’s hands or face, through particles in the air, or by touching things that infected people have touched.

Unfortunately, it can be spread even without a person exhibiting symptoms since around 40% of people are thought to be asymptomatic.

Recent News About the COVID-19 Coronavirus

COVID-19 Dashboard Credit: Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU)

On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the COVID-19 outbreak as a worldwide health pandemic. 2 days later, former President Trump declared a National Emergency in the U.S. This allowed the government to mobilize additional resources to combat the virus.

Traveling in the Age of COVID-19

In 2022, many countries worldwide have travel restrictions of some kind in place.

The CDC has recommended that “older adults and people of any age with serious chronic medical conditions should consider postponing nonessential travel to most global destinations.” With the uncertainty of the virus, it is best for everyone to follow these guidelines — not just those at the highest risk.

If you do attempt to travel internationally, there is a strong possibility that you could be quarantined or expected to provide proof of a negative COVID-19 test, completed vaccination, or both to enter.

In light of the virus, the TSA has some guidelines that include basic hygiene suggestions, as well as issuing various medical exemptions (including the allowance of additional hand sanitizer on board).

While many airport lounges, such as Polaris lounges and United Club locations, have reopened, you might still find reduced hours and services, such as prepackaged meals.

U.S. Entry Guidelines

As of December 6, 2021, the CDC requires all air passengers arriving in the U.S. from a foreign country, regardless of vaccination status, to provide a negative COVID-19 test taken within 1 day of departure before boarding the flight to the U.S.

This ruling applies to U.S. citizens/residents and travelers alike, though non-U.S. citizens and non-U.S. immigrants must be fully vaccinated (unless exception criteria are met, like children under 18 years old). This means that if you’re traveling internationally, you must figure out how to get tested abroad prior to flying back to the U.S.

Hot Tip: Testing requirements generally do not apply to domestic flights within the U.S.

Travel Advisories

On August 6, 2020, the Department of State lifted the Global Level 4 Health Advisory. It noted that “with health and safety conditions improving in some countries and potentially deteriorating in others, the Department is returning to our previous system of country-specific levels of travel advice (with Levels from 1 to 4 depending on country-specific conditions), in order to give travelers detailed and actionable information to make informed travel decisions.”

Airline Cancellations and Waivers

At the beginning of the pandemic, many airlines waived cancellation and change fees. Depending on your carrier, you may still see free cancellations or changes being allowed.

Specific cancellation policies based on dates and locations of travel vary by carrier, so be sure to reach out directly to see if you are eligible, or check out our article detailing specific policies at Airline Cancellation Policies Due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Everything You Need to Know.

Airlines are also taking preventative measures to slow the spread, including requiring the use of face masks except for when actively eating or drinking, as well as filling out health questionnaires. Be on the lookout for these procedures if you are flying.

Bottom Line: The best piece of advice if you’ve booked through any sort of travel agent, Expedia, Priceline, or one of the credit card travel sites is to call the travel agent directly about your booking. You cannot cancel or change your airline booking directly with the airline if booked via a third-party site.

Loyalty Extensions

Many airlines have adjusted their minimum requirements to attain elite status, as well as extending elite status through 2022 and beyond.

See our article on Coronavirus (COVID-19): Airline Elite Status Extensions, Changes, and Updates for more details.

Hotel Cancellations

Many hotel chains initially waived cancellation fees for reservations at hotels in affected areas. Be sure to check out our article Hotel Cancellation Policies Due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Everything You Need to Know that details all of the hotel policies related to COVID-19 changes or cancellations, including those booked through third-party OTA websites and credit card rewards portals.

You may need to call the hotel chain to get the cancellation fee removed. Even if your hotel chain isn’t listed, it is worth it to give them a call to see if they will be able to accommodate you.

Loyalty Extensions

Many hotels have adjusted their minimum requirements to attain elite status, as well as extending elite status through 2022 and beyond.

See our article on Coronavirus (COVID-19): Hotel Elite Status Extensions, Changes, and Updates for more details.

Cruise Line Policies and Cancellations

Cruises, in particular, have been hit hard by quarantines and other uncertainty.

Currently, the CDC is recommending that travelers who are not current on their COVID-19 vaccines avoid cruise travel altogether. The CDC has also offered guidance for cruise travel during COVID-19. This includes things like completing a self-quarantine and doing testing 1 to 3 days prior to leaving on your trip.

In light of this, cruise lines have been changing their policies, waiving change fees, or changing itineraries of cruises to avoid affected areas. Be sure to read our article Cruise Cancellation Policies Due to Coronavirus (COVID-19) – Everything You Need to Know for more information.

Hot Tip: Your bank may have some new lenient policies, too. Check out our detailed post about credit card debt relief and support for more information.

Travel Insurance

Don’t assume that your travel insurance will automatically cover any cancellations due to the coronavirus. This is because an outbreak of a virus is not included under most standard trip cancellation insurance policies. This includes any travel insurance provided by credit cards.

The exception to this is if you are currently stuck under quarantine as some trip insurance will cover this. Others will only cover if you are actually infected with the virus. It’s always best to call your card issuer directly to confirm if you will be covered or not.

Hot Tip: Unless you have opted to get a “Cancel For Any Reason” travel insurance policy or selected a policy that specifically covers COVID-19 changes or cancellations, you may be out of luck with getting travel insurance to cover any costs.

Even without travel insurance, it may still be worth it to see if prepaid items may be refunded. These would be done at the discretion of your hotel or tour operator, so be sure to call and see if any exceptions can be made.

COVID-19 Prevention

The best way to prevent the virus is to avoid being exposed to it. WHO’s recommendations include:

  • Get vaccinated as soon as it’s your turn and follow local guidance on vaccination.
  • Keep a physical distance of at least 1 meter from others, even if they don’t appear to be sick.
  • Wear a properly fitted mask when physical distancing is not possible and in poorly ventilated settings.
  • Clean your hands frequently with an alcohol-based hand rub or soap and water.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Dispose of used tissues immediately and clean hands regularly.
  • If you develop symptoms or test positive for COVID-19, self-isolate until you recover.
  • Make sure your mask covers your nose, mouth, and chin.
  • Meet people outside. Outdoor gatherings are safer than indoor ones, particularly if indoor spaces are small and without outdoor air coming in.
  • If you can’t avoid crowded or indoor settings, take these precautions:
    • Open a window to increase the amount of natural ventilation when indoors.
    • Wear a mask (see above for more details).

Washing Hands COVID 19
Proper handwashing is an important way to protect yourself from COVID-19. Image Credit: UNICEF

The CDC also advises you to discuss your travel plans with your healthcare providers, especially if you are an older adult and have any underlying health issues, as you may be at higher risk.
Hot Tip: Learn the best ways to sanitize and disinfect your airplane seat, hotel room, luggage, and more in our helpful guide.

COVID-19 Symptoms

Per the CDC, for confirmed cases of this COVID-19, reported illnesses have ranged from people being mildly sick to people being severely ill and dying. Symptoms usually appear 2 to 14 days after exposure and can include:

  • Fever and chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Sore throat
  • Runny nose or congestion
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea

This list does not include all possible symptoms.

If you develop emergency warning signs for COVID-19, get medical attention immediately. These include:

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion
  • Inability to wake or stay awake
  • Pale, gray, or blue-colored skin, lips, or nail beds, depending on skin tone

Bottom Line: In most cases, you won’t know whether you have COVID-19 or a different cold-causing virus, such as rhinovirus.

What To Do if You Think You Have COVID-19

Since community spread is prevalent, if you develop some of the common symptoms noted above, please go see your healthcare provider immediately.

Before you go to a doctor’s office or emergency room, call ahead and tell them about your symptoms.

The CDC recommends:

  • Avoid contact with others. If you live with others, stay in a separate room, and use a separate bathroom, if possible.
  • Avoid traveling while sick, including using local public transportation.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue or your sleeve (not your hands) when coughing or sneezing. Consider using a face mask as well.
  • Wash hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds to avoid spreading the virus to others. Use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available.
  • Avoid contact with pets and other animals as there have been confirmed cases in animals, such as cats and dogs.

Hot Tip: TSA is currently allowing up to 12 ounces of hand sanitizer “to be permitted in carry-on bags until further notice.”

The CDC recommends using face masks if you are feeling symptoms of illness or are a healthcare provider. In addition, due to the evidence of asymptomatic transmission, the CDC advises that you wear “the most protective mask you can that fits well and that you will wear consistently” in places where appropriate distance can’t be achieved, such as grocery stores or pharmacies.

We are not medical professionals, so always discuss all of these items with your healthcare provider.

COVID-19 Treatment

As of early 2022, there are 3 vaccines that have been authorized by the CDC for use to prevent COVID-19:

  • Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen
  • Moderna
  • Pfizer-BioNTech

There are also 12 additional vaccines that are approved for use (primarily in other countries) including:

  • Bharat Biotech
  • Novavax
  • Oxford – AstraZeneca
  • Sinovac

The CDC provided recommendations to federal, state, and local governments about who should be vaccinated first. All states are currently offering the COVID-19 vaccine to people ages 5 and older (Pfizer is currently approved for those aged 5 to 17).

How Long Is COVID-19 Detectable in the Body?

The CDC believes at this time that symptoms of COVID-19 may appear in as few as 2 days or as long as 14 after exposure. The average length of time until someone is no longer contagious appears to be around 10 days.

There is additional information that incubation could last longer than 14 days. This is a developing situation.

Final Thoughts

Canceled flights, conventions, and attractions, along with mandatory quarantines, have led to increasing global uncertainty. We do not know all of the impacts that COVID-19 will have, but one thing is for sure — we have all been impacted.

From a wellness perspective, most of the tips we have given you will help you stay healthy whether or not you are traveling to areas that are currently impacted by the spread of the coronavirus. If you must travel to areas that are feeling the impacts of the virus, take precautions, follow recommendations in your local area, and monitor your health carefully.


All information and content provided by Upgraded Points is intended as general information and for educational purposes only, and should not be interpreted as medical advice or legal advice. For more information, see our Medical & Legal Disclaimers.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is coronavirus?

A coronavirus is a family of viruses. Most recently in December 2019, a new type of coronavirus, or a “novel” virus, was identified. It can cause fever, shortness of breath, respiratory problems, and in some cases, death. It is officially known as COVID-19.

How do I prevent coronavirus?

There are currently 3 vaccines being offered in the U.S. to prevent (or lessen) the effects of COVID-19.

If you have not been vaccinated, officials recommend similar precautions to avoid getting the flu — wash hands frequently, avoid contact with those who might have been infected, and maintain social distancing of 6 feet with people not in your household.

Should I cancel my trip because of the coronavirus?

Your trip may be canceled for you if you are traveling to an area that is highly impacted, but many airlines and hotels are currently waiving change fees. Ultimately the decision should be made based on your health and type of trip. If you have underlying health issues and plan to be on a cruise or long flight, the CDC is currently recommending to not take your trip. Otherwise, watch the situation closely and make your decision accordingly.

Do I need to get a COVID-19 test before traveling to the U.S.?

As of December 6, 2021, the CDC requires all air passengers arriving in the U.S. from a foreign country to provide a negative COVID-19 test before boarding the flight to the U.S. Regardless of vaccination status, you must provide a negative test taken within 1 day of departure. This ruling applies to U.S. citizens/residents and travelers alike, though non-U.S. citizens and non-U.S. immigrants must be fully vaccinated (unless exception criteria are met, like children under 18 years old). This means that if you’re traveling internationally, you must figure out how to get tested abroad prior to flying back to the U.S.

Christy Rodriguez's image

About Christy Rodriguez

After having “non-rev” privileges with Southwest Airlines, Christy dove into the world of points and miles so she could continue traveling for free. Her other passion is personal finance, and is a certified CPA.

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